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Lakewood Presbyterian School

Logic Phase

In the Logic stage, we emphasize connections and interrelations. We study the why and how of each subject. The study of formal logic (fallacies and syllogisms) and the art of debate begin. Students in these years develop the capacity for more abstract thought, as they expand on the knowledge base acquired during the grammar stage. Now, however, emphasis is placed on using these facts to create proper sentences, to define terms and eliminate ambiguity, and to detect fallacies. Students at this age love to question and debate. To equip them to argue correctly, we teach students properly to construct and critique valid arguments, to recognize logical fallacies, to identify critical underlying assumptions, and to develop sound reasoning

Rhetoric Phase

In the Rhetoric stage, students synthesize their acquired knowledge and skills by articulate expression of their own ideas. Classical education is incomplete without the final phase of acquiring wisdom and developing the capacity for beauty and clarity of expression. Students in this stage take
positions on issues and argue for these positions using cogent, articulate, and persuasive communication. Discussion and analysis of controversial and fundamental issues and philosophies will continue from the Logic stage. Students will be required to critically examine the assumptions and
conclusions intrinsic to their own philosophies and those of the world around
them. They will be immersed in the best of literature, the arts, history, theology, philosophy, science, and mathematics.

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